By Martin Kennedy
Practical Petrophysics seems to be at either the foundations and perform of petrophysics in figuring out petroleum reservoirs. It concentrates at the instruments and methods in daily use, and addresses all kinds of reservoirs, together with unconventionals.
The e-book presents worthy factors on how one can practice healthy for goal interpretations of petrophysical facts, with emphasis on what the interpreter wishes and what's virtually attainable with genuine info. Readers will not be restricted to static reservoir houses for enter to volumetrics, because the ebook additionally contains purposes equivalent to reservoir functionality, seismic characteristic, geo-mechanics, resource rock characterization, and more.
- Principles and perform are given equivalent emphasis
- Simple types and ideas clarify the underlying principles
- Extensive use of latest, real-life examples
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Extra resources for Practical Petrophysics, Volume 62 (Developments in Petroleum Science)
Total porosity is often justified as the better description because that is what is measured in core analysis. This is because most companies thoroughly dry the core plugs before measuring porosity and even the water bound to the clays is driven off. So, if a porosity calculated from logs is compared to measurements on core plugs we are implicitly comparing to a total porosity. Furthermore, to find the total porosity from logs we only need to find the total volume of water in the system (although with conventional logs that may be easier said than done).
Chlorite Chlorite is another ‘non-clay’, in fact the ‘chlorites’ are often given the status of a separate group. From our point of view however, their effects on logs and the ways they are handled are essentially the same as clays and so we will not bother with the distinction. Chlorite is probably best known for its ability to preserve permeability and to trap large volumes of irreducible water. This gives the apparently contradictory situation of a sand with high water saturations that produces dry hydrocarbons at prodigious rates.
Notwithstanding these inconvenient truths, the first step in deterministic log analysis normally is the calculation of shale and/or clay volume. The way this is subsequently used depends on a variety of factors including the nature of the formation, company procedures and whether an effective or total porosity system is being used. At its simplest, the shale volume is simply used as a cut-off to define reservoir quality rock. For example, if it exceeds 50% the porosity is set to zero or at least is excluded from any reservoir averages.