By C.H. Bamford and C.F.H. Tipper (Eds.)
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There are c. lo', pyramids/cm2 presenting (1 11) microfacets and a height of 20 A;(100) terraces represent about 60% of the surface exposed to solution. This surface structure is little affected at longer exposure, implying that the (100) face is rather unexpectedly stable compared with the (111) face. The reason is apparently a 2 x 1 reconstruction of the (100) face, as suggested by the strings resolved in the area with enhanced contrast of Fig. 19d. Though Si-H monohydrides are threefold-coordinated on the reconstructed (100) face and on the (1 11) face, the etch rate of the (100) surface is slightly faster because the Si - H are strained on the (100) face.
In NaOH the resolution of images was much better than in fluoride solutions. In-situ high-resolution images revealed first that the surface was terminated by a monolayer of Si-H bonds because it was again (1 x 1) unreconstructed (see Fig. 10) [18, 20, 1201. This surface chemistry, unexpected in an alkaline solution, has been confirmed recently by in-situ IR spectroscopy [ 11I]. On a larger scale the potential dependence of Si(l11) etching has been followed in real time with the resolution of atomic-scale defects.
Calculations predict that the gap becomes direct below a critical size (2-4 nm) of Si particles. Despite many investigations the mechanism of formation and the origin of the photoluminescence are still not clearly elucidated and remain open questions . In the context of PSL studies, local probe microscopes are difficult to operate ex situ for several reasons. The Si skeleton is fragile and easily destroyed, especially by AFM tips. The resistivity of layers (> lo9 Cl cm) is also a problem for tunneling.