By Philippe Coussot
This e-book provides a unified view of the physicochemical foundation of the mechanical behaviour of gases, uncomplicated solids and beverages, suspensions, polymers, emulsions, foams, and granular fabrics, in addition to ideas for measuring that behaviour. along with molecular fabrics in all their classical gaseous, strong, or liquid states, we deal day-by-day with a couple of different fabrics made up of coarser parts corresponding to polymers, cells, grains, bubbles, and droplets. They tackle the customary visual appeal of paints, inks, cements, muds, foams, emulsions, toothpastes, gels, and so on. those fabrics convey complicated buildings and occasionally outstanding kinds of mechanical behaviour, frequently intermediate among these of an easy liquid and a straightforward stable. From a pragmatic viewpoint, the purpose is to investigate their inner evolution (aging, restructuring, part separation, etc.), then to formulate those fabrics based on the specified homes, and thereby devise new fabrics. With that target in brain, it will be significant to appreciate how those fabrics deform or circulate, looking on the interactions and constructions shaped through the weather they comprise. This ebook is meant for college kids in addition to extra complex researchers in mechanics, physics, chemistry, and biology. The mathematical formalism is diminished on the way to concentrate on actual explanations.
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Extra resources for Rheophysics: Matter in all its States (Soft and Biological Matter)
Foams are used for a whole range of applications, but often enough fluid foams are required to form a light medium that is able to remain rigid under its own weight. This is the case for example with shaving foam. The aim is to have soapy water on the skin, and the foam provides a way of stopping the water from running down one’s face during the shaving process. When such materials are used in foodstuffs like chocolate mousse, meringue, soufflés, and Chantilly cream, for example, the aim is to spread the food over a volume that looks much bigger than it really is, giving it also a smooth or creamy texture which better spreads its taste around the mouth and facilitates grinding and digestion.
This means that the structure of a liquid, like the structure of a gas, is not frozen in, so to speak, but nevertheless remains statistically identical. However, we still have only a limited understanding of the relationship between the internal forces and the evolution of this disordered structure under flow conditions. So even for this simple material, we reach the limits of present day rheophysics, which, except in certain special cases, has great difficulty explaining the behaviour of condensed matter under flow conditions (see Sect.
The droplets are still spherical. c The same but at a higher concentration (85 %). The droplets are now squashed up against one another. Credit L. Ducloué within two droplets from coalescing. In reality, there will always be a residual effect in which liquid from the largest droplets will diffuse very slowly to the smallest, but if the surfactants are doing their job correctly, this process will be extremely slow. Mayonnaise is an emulsion (see Fig. 17a) produced by dispersing oil droplets in an aqueous solution of egg yolk comprising 50 % water, and mustard.