By Perrin, Michel; Rainaud, Jean-François
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Extra info for Shared earth modeling : knowledge driven solutions for building and managing subsurface 3D geological models
Because geological surface assemblages are governed by well-defined laws, there is a definite advantage to using a rational approach when constructing structural models. Conversely, considering the scarcity of the data on rock properties, the use of a stochastic approach based on geostatistical models is necessary for assigning property values to points on a reservoir volume. Chapter 1 • Earth Models as Subsurface Representations 23 Methods based on artificial intelligence provide a promising approach for solving problems involving seismic data correlation and interpretation, but can also be used for other tasks.
It will be further discussed and reinterpreted in chapter 6. 9, we see that the various topological relationships between stratification surfaces (thin lines) and unit boundaries (thick lines) can be reduced to three types: Stratification positioning Parallel Relationships with stratification Intersection type No intersection On lap The older surface interrupts the younger one Downlap, onlap Unconformable The younger surface interrupts the older one Truncation, toplap, offlap2 1 1. We propose that the term “on lap” (with a space between the words on and lap) designates any assemblage in which an older surface interrupts younger surfaces.
The beds attached to each unit may be arranged in parallel or obliquely to those in neighboring units (an arrangement referred to as cross-stratification by geologists). However, in contrast to the practice found in the geological literature and for reasons of simplicity, in this book we use the term stratification to refer to the parallel stratification of a set of beds. This type of stratification can additionally be characterized by its style: the thicknesses of the beds can be uniform or increase or decrease upwards from bed to bed, or increase laterally in a given direction, and so on.