By Ahmed El-Zooghby
The expanding call for for instant providers and the transforming into variety of instant clients are pushing networks to their means limits. clever antenna know-how can conquer those skill limits in addition to increase sign caliber and permit cellular phones function on much less energy. This e-book fingers instant telecom engineers with a robust layout method that enables them to choose the clever antenna method best suited for a selected program. It additionally permits instant engineers to judge structures functionality of a specific layout and engineer shrewdpermanent antenna designs for optimum functionality. A entire and useful reference, this publication deals tips within the program of clever antennas in 2G, 3G, and complex Mimo (multiple enter and a number of output) instant structures.
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Extra info for Smart Antenna Engineering (Artech House Mobile Communications Library)
12 for user 1, where the receiver integrates all the values over a bit period. 11 Smart Antenna Engineering Composite spread spectrum signal. 12 (Tb = 8Tc). 13, which means the signal cannot be recovered. In addition to using Walsh codes to separate different users and different channels on the forward link within a sector, a CDMA system needs to separate transmissions from different sectors within a network. 14. 1. 3 IS-95 CDMA Systems The TIA IS-95 CDMA system is a 2G mobile wireless system that operates in the cellular 800-MHz band [6, 7].
14. 1. 3 IS-95 CDMA Systems The TIA IS-95 CDMA system is a 2G mobile wireless system that operates in the cellular 800-MHz band [6, 7]. Another version of this system that operates in the PCS 1,900-MHz band is defined in J-STD-008 . 2288 Mcps. On the forward link, a family of 64 Walsh codes is used to separate the different channels and different users. 67 ms are used to separate transmissions from different sectors. This is accomplished by using the same PN sequence for all sectors and then identifying each sector by a unique time offset in increments of 64 chips, resulting in 512 possible PN sequences.
Since each cell is assigned 1/N of the total channels, this factor is called the frequency reuse factor. Since the available spectrum is finite, there is a fundamental limit on the capacity or number of users that can be served by a cell. It is possible to reuse the whole available spectrum in each cell to maximize the capacity; this is called reuse factor of one. However, the base station transmit power required to communicate with all these users plus additional margins to overcome fading caused by multipath creates so much cochannel interference to users in neighboring cells that the signal quality is significantly degraded.