By Mitsuhiro Ebara
This ebook surveys clever biomaterials, exploring the houses, mechanics and characterization of hydrogels, debris, assemblies, surfaces, fibers and conjugates. reports purposes resembling drug supply, tissue engineering, bioseparation and extra.
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Extra resources for Smart Biomaterials (NIMS Monographs)
For example, hormones or cytokines not only act locally (local signals), but also travel to other locations in the body via blood circulation (remote signals) . These signals are sometimes amplified or transferred to another signal by sequentially interacting with many other different molecules. A representative process is blood coagulation, which is a complex sequence involving numerous clotting factors. The concentration gradients of protons (pH), ions, and oxidizing or reducing agents are also important characteristics observed in living systems.
Gel surface skin layer formation can be controlled by changing the gel polymer chemistry, namely, the lengths of alkyl side chains on comonomers used during gel co-polymerization. Marked differences are observed in the initial shrinking process between three types of PNIPAAm-derived gels copolymerized with alkyl methacrylate comonomers, butyl methacrylate (BMA), hexyl methacrylate (HMA) and lauryl methacrylate (LMA) after temperature increase from 20 to 30 °C. P(IPAAmco-HMA) and P(IPAAm-co-LMA) gels, both with longer alkyl side chains, shrank to only 20–30 % of their original volume observed at 20 °C, whereas P(IPAAm-coBMA) gels shrank up to 80–90 % after equilibration.
At the critical solution temperature, hydrogen bonding between the polymer and water, compared with polymer–polymer and water–water interactions, becomes unfavorable. This forces the quick dehydration of the system and water is released out of the hydrogel with a large gain in entropy, resulting in shrinkage of the polymeric structure. Of the many temperature-responsive polymers, PNIPAAm is probably the most extensively used because its LCST is close to body temperature. Copolymers of NIPAAm can also be made using other monomers to alter the LCST.