By Jose L. Martinez
Superior trouble for the standard and safeguard of foodstuff items, elevated choice for typical items, and stricter laws at the residual point of solvents, all give a contribution to the transforming into use of supercritical fluid know-how as a chief replacement for the extraction, fractionation, and isolation of energetic ingredients. As a solvent-free technique, supercritical fluid expertise is a well-liked resolution for the practical meals and nutraceutical area, one of many quickest becoming client pushed markets. fresh developments within the know-how and elevated usage of the method call for a finished, single-source evaluate of present and destiny tendencies in supercritical fluid know-how.
Compiling contributions from foreign specialists within the box, Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Nutraceuticals and Bioactive Compounds offers the state-of-the-science within the extraction and fractionation of bioactive elements by way of supercritical fluids. targeting applied business strategies and traits, it reports the basics of the expertise and examines the economics of supercritical fluid extraction structures and techniques. Over the process twelve chapters, the booklet offers the supercritical fluid extraction techniques in suitable for eating oils, together with fish oils and strong point oils; herbs, reminiscent of Latin American crops and people utilized in conventional chinese language medication; algae; spices; antioxidants and crucial oils; in addition to the processing of micro and nano-scale fabrics by way of supercritical fluid expertise.
Each bankruptcy covers the key lively elements within the goal fabric, together with chemical, actual, dietary, and pharmaceutical homes; an research of the explicit supercritical fluid procedure used; a comparability of conventional processing equipment as opposed to supercritical fluid know-how; and a suite of conclusions with helping information and insight.
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Additional info for Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Nutraceuticals and Bioactive Compounds
1 Basic scheme of supercritical extraction process. In this case, the extraction is carried out in two stages. During the first stage, a relatively low fluid density is selected, which allows extraction of the compounds that are soluble at low pressure. , dealcoholization of cider ). , extraction of active ingredients from grape seed ). Another procedure to selectively extract or separate specific compounds from a mixture is sequential depressurization . In this case, both fractions (light and heavy) are simultaneously extracted by using high-density fluid.
Bermudez, A. , Revision and extension of the group contribution equation of state to new solvent groups and higher molecular weight alkanes, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 172, 129–143, 2000. indd 21 10/8/07 11:11:20 AM 22 Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Nutraceuticals and Bioactive Compounds 24. , Calculation of phase envelopes and critical points for multicomponent mixtures, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 4, 1–10, 1980. 25. Kravanja, Z. , Multilevel-hierarchical MINLP synthesis of process flowsheets, Comput.
Most high-pressure pumps are multiplunger styles. Flow and pressure control commonly use some type of speed control, such as variable frequency speed. A further development includes diaphragm type pumps, which are actuated by plungers and more normal liquids that cause the displacement and flexing of the final pumping element (the diaphragm). The pumps have proprietary design features to provide suitable operation for the pressures and flows required. More standard pumps can be used for provision of makeup supercritical fluids and final product (extract) pumps.